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Recommended Style Guidelines for Manuscripts

Questions? Contact Kaulene Gellerman at 714-965-8800 or email



  1. Manuscript Title. Maximum of 75 characters and spaces, and typed in upper-case letters.
  2. Author’s Name and Contact Information.  Include full name, affiliation, mailing address, phone, and e-mail for each author and indicate which author is the corresponding author for the submission. At the time of submission, it is the author's responsibility to mask their identity on their manuscript. WEAI will not intentionally reveal author identity during the review process.



  1. An abstract of no more than 100 words is required for all articles published except speeches, addresses, and comments.
  2. Work hard on your abstract; the reader’s decision to tackle your article often depends on the abstract.  Give a clear idea of the main conclusions of the article, the methods employed, and a clear indication of the line of reasoning.  The opening sentence should indicate the major conclusion of the article.
  3. Abstracts must not contain equations, diagrams, or footnotes.
  4. Put Journal of Economic Literature categories to which the paper belongs in parentheses at the end of your abstract.  If there is more than one category, list the principal one first.



  1. Double space. Use 8½ x 11 inch paper, Times Roman 12 point type or the equivalent, one-inch margins all around.  Articles generally should not exceed 35 pages. Longer papers also considered as warranted by subject area.
  2. Dividing the manuscript into sections. Number section headings with roman numerals, in upper case, centered.  The text then begins on the next line. Subheadings are upper and lower case and underlined, flush left.  The text then begins on the next line.  Further subheadings are flush left, underlined, upper and lower case, and followed by a period.  The text then begins on the same line, immediately following the subheading.
  3. Footnotes. Footnotes should be embedded and numbered consecutively.  Do not use endnotes.
  4. Reference citations. Refer in the text to listed references by author with date and, if necessary, page numbers, placed in parentheses.  Separate year references to different articles with brackets by semicolons.  A comma indicates that the next number is a page number.  If a reference comes at the end of a sentence, the period follows the parenthesis.  In the References, list every publication or unpublished manuscript cited in your paper.



  1. Put variables in parentheses after each word describing the variable. Example: “The relationship of primary exports (E) to domestic prices (P1) and foreign prices (P2) …”
  2. Minimize mathematical footnotes; we prefer lemmas in the text or mathematical appendices.
  3. Avoid repeated use of time or sectorial subscripts and superscripts where these can be suppressed without ambiguity; avoid repeated listing of the arguments of functions where these can be omitted without confusion.
  4. Equations must be written in linear style, using a solidus (/) to denote fractions.



  1. Place TABLE 1, FIGURE 2, etc. centered above the table or figure.  Below the table or figure number, put the table or figure title in upper and lower case.  Source information for tables, figures, and other artwork should be mentioned in the caption below the body of the table or figure.
  2. Tables should contain no vertical lines and a minimum of horizontal lines.
  3. Figures must be submitted in PDF, EPS, AI, WMF, or PPT format.  Format photographs and raster images at 300 dpi.  Figures will be printed in black and white in the print journal, so make sure elements are differentiated well when rendered as shades of gray.
  4. Formal written consent must be obtained by the author for images owned by a third party including maps, diagrams, logos, etc.



List only those references actually cited in the text or footnotes—the reference section is not a bibliography.  Use the Chicago Manual of Style format for all references listed alphabetically by author’s last name, then by date with oldest publication date appearing first.  Some examples are provided below:

Article listings:

  • Bungus, J. “Revealed Preference among Economists.” Journal Title, 39(4), 1923, 162–73.
  • Billings, B. B., and Wanda J. D. Watkins. “The Relative Quality of Economics Journals.” Western Economic Journal, December 1972, 467–69. [Use this form only if volume and issue number are not available.]
  • California Coastal Commission. Offshore Drilling Rights. Sacramento, 1980.

Book listings:

  • Doe, D., and C. Coauthor. Title of Book. Boston: Brown and Company, 1978.
  • Doe, D., ed. Book She Edited. Boston: Brown and Company, 1978.
  • Flamingo, J. Flamingo’s Collected Works, edited by Jevons Marshall. Boston: etc. . . .
  • Gregious, M. His Book in a Series. Title of Series. Boston: etc. . . .
  • ———. His Work in a Later Edition. 2nd. ed. Boston: etc. . . .
  • Gregious, E., and S. Strange. “Chapter in a Cooperative Work,” in Title of Work, edited by M. Sams. Boston: Brown and Company, 1979, 26–40.

Unpublished work listings:

  • Boy, S. “Her Unpublished Work.” Ph.D. dissertation [or Manuscript, Working Paper, or Photocopy], University of Oklahoma, 1972.

Unauthored work listings:

  • New York Times. “Man Bites Dog,” 25 July 1981, Sec. A, p. 6.
  • Blonder, A. “Interest Rates Now and Then.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 1429 [or Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2], 1983.



The first time the organization or subject to be abbreviated is mentioned in the body of the text, use the full spelling followed by the abbreviation in parentheses, such as General Accounting Office (GAO).  For subsequent usage, include just the abbreviation. If you use more than one abbreviation, list them in alphabetical order after the footnotes.